Media Advisory

Jakarta, 9 Desember 2020

Tren Energi Terbarukan Global Meningkat, Indonesia Harus Bersiap!

Transisi energi mulai terjadi di seluruh dunia. Menurut data yang dihimpun oleh BloombergNEF, ada 10 juta bus listrik yang beredar di seluruh dunia dan jumlahnya terus meningkat. Kepala Riset APAC BloombergNEF, Dr Ali Izadi mengatakan data peningkatan jumlah bus listrik itu berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan tren energi terbarukan di masa depan.

“Pada 2050, energi terbarukan sinar matahari dan angin akan mendominasi dunia. Lima tahun ke depan, energi terbarukan sinar matahari dan angin mulai on track,” kata Ali. Oleh karena itu Ali mengatakan dalam enam bulan ini terjadi perubahan pasar energi di dunia yang begitu pesat. Negara-negara di seluruh dunia harus melakukan transisi energi mulai saat ini.

Peningkatan tren minat dunia pada energi terbarukan berdampak pada permintaan batu bara di Indonesia. Ketua Asosiasi Batubara Indonesia, Pandu Syahrir, mengatakan saat ini permintaan ekspor batu bara Indonesia masih menjanjikan di Asia Tenggara dan Asia Timur. Namun, pada 2019, permintaan itu sudah mencapai puncaknya.

“18 persen ekspor batu bara kita pergi ke Cina dan India. Kemudian 30 persen diekspor ke Taiwan, Thailand dan Jepang. Kita tetap akan menandatangani kerjasama ekspor dengan Cina untuk menjaga hubungan baik dengan negara itu. Akan tetapi pada 2019 permintaan batu bara sudah klimaks, akan ada penurunan pelan-pelan ke depannya, memang harus transisi energi terbarukan,” kata Pandu.

Saat ini Indonesia sudah mulai melakukan transisi energi terbarukan melalui PT PLN sebagai Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN). Fase pertama transisi diesel ke energi terbarukan dilakukan di 200 titik dengan total kapasitas 225 MW.

Direktur Mega Proyek PLN, M Ikhsan Asaad mengatakan untuk mendukung fase pertama transisi, PLN tidak hanya melakukan dekarbonisasi, namun juga digitalisasi. “Smart grid, smart meter, smart home. Kemudian kami juga mengadakan storage terdistribusi. Pertamina, PLN, Antam juga berkolaborasi berupaya mengembangkan industri batu baterai di indonesia,” kata Ikhsan.

Wakil Menteri BUMN Budi Gunadi Sadikin mengatakan saat ini Indonesia memiliki surplus energi sebesar 3500 MW, dari surplus tersebut masyarakat menggunakan energi sebesar 1000 MW. “Dari penggunaan itu 60 persennya masih batubara dan 15 persen gas alam,” kata Budi.

Di sisi lain, saat ini Indonesia masih melakukan ekspor batu bara murah ke luar negeri dan memberi subsidi pada konsumsi LPG sebesar 40 triliun. Menurut Budi, seharusnya 10 triliun dari anggaran pemerintah bisa digunakan sebagai biaya riset dan pengembangan energi terbarukan.

Akan tetapi, dalam implementasinya, Indonesia tidak bisa meniru mentah-mentah strategi transisi energi terbarukan yang dilakukan oleh negara lain. “Tidak bisa mentah-mentah karena kita negara kepulauan. Harus memikirkan bagaimana energi itu tidak hanya terdistribusi tapi terkoneksi dari satu pulau ke pulau lain,” kata Budi.

Faisal Basri, anggota Indonesia Circular Economy Forum mengatakan, selain ketersediaan, pemerintah juga harus mewujudkan keterjangkauan energi terbarukan untuk masyarakat. Untuk itu pemerintah harus menyediakan subsidi energi terbarukan daripada subsidi bahan bakar fosil.

Dalam hal ini, Faisal menilai pemerintah masih belum satu suara dengan BUMN seperti Pertamina. Faisal mengatakan di tengah pandemi, pemerintah memberikan peningkatan fasilitas untuk energi berbasis fosil. Apalagi dalam RUU Cipta Lapangan Kerja, banyak pasal yang justru menguntungkan mekanisme harga dalam industri batu bara.

“Contohnya ketika pertamina launching ide mengeliminasi 88 ton karbon dengan pertalite. Tapi pertalite ini harganya sama dengan premium. Pemerintah tidak mengatakan apa apa. Pemerintah masih alokasi subsidi untuk premium. Pertamina lebih progresif daripada pemerintah,” kata Faisal.

Faisal mengatakan untuk mewujudkan transisi energi terbarukan, pemerintah perlu mendukung industri energi terbarukan dengan kebijakan di bidang infrastruktur energi terbarukan, subsidi energi terbarukan dan mekanisme harga energi terbarukan.

Direktur Eksekutif Institute Essential Services Reform (IESR), Fabby Tumiwa, mengatakan transisi energi secara global sudah terjadi dan tidak terelakan. Bagi BUMN energi di Indonesia, penting untuk dapat bertahan di era transisi energi ini dengan melakukan transformasi bisnis dan melakukan inovasi-inovasi.

“Di sektor kelistrikan, pemerintah perlu merancang perubahan struktur industri kelistrikan dan penetapan tarif listrik yang merefleksikan biaya produksi marginal jangka panjang (long term marginal cost),” kata Fabby.

PLN perlu mengintegrasikan sistem penyediaan energi terdistribusi dan memperkuat konsumen. Dengan begitu, konsumen dapat menjadi produsen energi dan membantu PLN mengatasi kebutuhan investasi penyediaan energi yang membutuhkan investasi $25 milyar per tahun menurut IEA (2020) untuk mengakselerasi transisi energi.

“Tantangan bagi pemerintah adalah membuat peta jalan, merencanakan, dan mengelola proses transisi ini mengingat aset infrastruktur fossil fuels yg dimiliki BUMN sangat besar. Tidak banyak waktu tersisa, maksimal 5 tahun untuk menghindari BUMN energi seperti PLN menanggung kerugian finansial karena aset PLTU-nya tidak kompetitif terhadap teknologi pembangkit listrik surya dan storage,” kata Fabby.

Global Renewable Energy Trend Increases, Indonesia Must be Prepared!

Energy transition is taking place all around the world. According to the data compiled by BloombergNEF, there are 10 million electric buses in the world and they keep increasing. Head of Research for APAC BloombergNEF, Dr Ali Izadi, said that the data is directly proportional to the increasing trend of renewable energy in the future.

"By 2050, sunlight and wind power as renewables will dominate the world. In the next five years, renewable energy from sunlight and wind power will start to be on track," said Ali. Therefore, Ali said that in the last six months there had been a rapid change in the worldwide energy market. Countries around the world must make energy transition from now on.

The increasing trend of worldwide interest in renewable energy affected coal demand in Indonesia. Chairman of the Indonesian Coal Association (Asosiasi Batubara Indonesia), Pandu Syahrir, said that currently, the demand for Indonesian coal exports to Southeast Asia and East Asia is still promising. But in 2019, the demand had reached its peak.

“Eighteen per cent of our coal exports go to China and India. Another 30% is exported to Taiwan, Thailand and Japan. We will still sign an export cooperation agreement with China to maintain good relations with them. However, in 2019, the demand for coal had reached its climax, there will be a slow decline in the future, there must be a transition to renewable energy," said Pandu.

Presently, Indonesia has started its renewable energy transition through PT PLN as a State-Owned Enterprise (BUMN). The first phase of diesel to renewable energy transition took place across 200 locations with a total capacity of 225 MW.

Director of the PLN Mega Project, M. Ikhsan Asaad, said that to support the first phase, PLN would not only carry out decarbonization but also digitalization. “Smart grid, smart meter, smart home. Then we also carried out distributed storage. Pertamina, PLN, Antam also collaborated to develop battery industry in Indonesia,” said Ikhsan.

Deputy Minister of BUMN, Budi Gunadi Sadikin, stated that presently Indonesia has 3500 MW energy surplus of which people use 1000 MW. "From that, 60% is still coal and 15% is natural gas," said Budi.

On the other hand, Indonesia still exports cheap coal and subsidizes LPG consumption by 40 trillion rupiahs. According to Budi, 10 trillion rupiahs from the government budget could have been used to fund renewable energy research and development.

However, in its implementation, Indonesia cannot completely imitate the renewable energy transition strategy undertaken by other countries. "We can't just do it since our country is an archipelago. Not only we have to think about how the energy can be distributed, but also connected from one island to another,” said Budi.

Faisal Basri, a member of the Indonesia Circular Economy Forum, said that apart from ensuring its availability, the government should make renewable energy affordable for the community as well. For this reason, the government should give subsidies for renewable energy instead of fossil fuels.

In this case, Faisal assessed that the government is still not in line with BUMN such as Pertamina. Faisal said that amid the pandemic, the government improved the facilities for fossil-based energy. Especially in the Job Creation Draft Bill (RUU Cipta Lapangan Kerja), many articles rather benefit the price mechanism in the coal industry.

"For example, when Pertamina launched the idea to ​​eliminate 88 tons of carbon using pertalite. But this pertalite cost the same as premium. The government didn't say anything. The government still subsidized premium. Pertamina is more progressive than the government,” said Faisal.

Faisal said that in order to administer renewable energy transition, the government has to support the renewable energy industry through policies encompassing renewable energy infrastructure, subsidy, and pricing mechanisms.

Executive Director of Institute Essential Services Reform (IESR), Fabby Tumiwa, stated that global energy transition has been in progress and inevitable. For energy State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia, it is important to survive this era of energy transition by transforming business and making innovations.

"In the electricity sector, the government needs to design changes for the structure in electricity industry and set electricity rates that reflect long-term marginal cost," said Fabby.

PLN needs to integrate a distributed-energy supply system and strengthen its consumers. That way, consumers could become energy producers and help PLN address the need for energy supply investment that—according to the IEA (2020)—requires $25 billion investment per year to accelerate energy transition.

“The challenges for the government is making road maps, planning and managing the transition; considering the infrastructure assets of fossil fuel owned by BUMN are very large. There is not much time left—5 years at most to prevent an energy BUMN like PLN from financial losses due to the uncompetitiveness of its PLTU assets with solar generator and storage technology," said Fabby.

IETD is an IESR and ICEF initiative

 

Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR)

Jl. Tebet Barat Dalam VIII No. 20B, Jakarta Selatan

Indonesia

General Inquiry: icef@iesr.or.id

P. +62 21 - 22323069

©2020 by Indonesia Clean Energy Forum (ICEF) in association with IESR

  • Facebook
  • Instagram
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn