Media Advisory

Jakarta, 7 Desember 2020

Penurunan Emisi Karbon Melalui Pengembangan Energi Terbarukan Butuh Kolaborasi Semua Pihak

Emisi karbon dari Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap (PLTU) cenderung rendah selama pandemi Covid-19 akibat konsumsi energi listrik yang menurun. Meski demikian, target pengurangan emisi karbon belum di dalam jalur pemenuhan komitmen Perjanjian Paris. Agar penurunan emisi karbon ini berkelanjutan, pemerintah Indonesia seharusnya dapat memanfaatkan pemulihan pasca Covid-19 dengan lebih masif mengembangkan potensi energi terbarukan.

Fabby Tumiwa, Direktur Eksekutif Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) dalam sambutannya saat membuka Indonesia Energy Transition Dialogue 2020 (IETD 2020) menyoroti pula fenomena turunnya harga batubara di pasar internasional dan makin kuatnya komitmen negara pengimpor batubara seperti Cina, Korea dan Jepang untuk netral karbon di 2050.

“Sepuluh tahun lalu, orang mungkin tidak membayangkan bahwa teknologi panel surya akan menjadi salah satu energi untuk menyalakan listrik. Atau, dekade yang lalu, orang mungkin tidak percaya kalau batubara akan menjadi sejarah karena sudah tidak ekonomis lagi. Namun, semua itu sedang terjadi saat ini. Energi surya semakin murah, dan batubara menjadi tidak populer,” ujarnya.

Fabby menjabarkan pula bahwa Indonesia memiliki potensi energi terbarukan yang besar dari sinar matahari, panas bumi, biogas dan tenaga air. Menggunakan potensi-potensi tersebut, Indonesia harus mencapai target bauran energi terbarukan sebesar 23% di tahun 2025.

Menurut riset IESR, peluang Indonesia untuk mencapai target bauran energi cukup positif. Penetrasi bauran energi di Indonesia dapat mencapai 40%. Studi terbaru IESR dengan Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) Finlandia dan Agora Energiewende mengatakan Indonesia dapat mencapai 100 persen permintaan energi terbarukan pada 2050 dengan biaya efektif tanpa berkompromi soal keamanan energi. Untuk mencapai hal itu, diperlukan kolaborasi dari seluruh pemangku kebijakan pemerintah dan masyarakat.

Meskipun belum secepat negara ASEAN seperti Thailand dalam mendorong pengembangan energi terbarukan, pemerintah Indonesia melalui Kementerian Keuangan membuat berbagai kebijakan fiskal yang mendukung industri energi terbarukan. Beberapa diantaranya adalah tax holiday (cuti pajak) dan tax allowance (pengurangan pajak) untuk industri energi terbarukan.

Selain itu, Suahasil Nazara, Wakil Menteri Keuangan yang hadir dalam Indonesia Energy Transition Dialog (IETD) menekankan pentingnya sinergi antar lembaga untuk menentukan arah energi terbarukan Indonesia ke depannya.

“Pemerintah pada dasarnya sangat bersemangat terhadap pengembangan energi terbarukan. Mari, setiap lembaga terutama Kementerian ESDM dan lembaga terkait untuk duduk bersama dan berdiskusi secara mendalam, sehingga kami, dari Kementerian Keuangan dapat memberikan dukungan yang maksimal dalam hal mendorong investasi energi terbarukan di Indonesia,” ajak Suahasil.

Pemerintah juga terus berupaya memperbaiki kondisi ekonomi Indonesia melalui berbagai program pemulihan ekonomi nasional (PEN), yaitu alokasi dana sebesar Rp. 318 triliun. Berkat program tersebut ekonomi Indonesia mulai membaik dilihat dari grafik perkembangan pendapatan nasional sebesar -5,32 persen yang naik menjadi -3,49 persen pada kuartal tiga.

Namun sayangnya, stimulus ekonomi tersebut lebih banyak mengalir ke energi fosil dibandingkan energi terbarukan. Oleh karena itu pemerintah menyediakan pendanaan industri energi baru terbarukan dengan berbagai sumber pendanaan. Salah satunya melalui penerbitan sukuk hijau.

Artikel ini diolah dari hasil diskusi hari pertama di Indonesia Energy Transition Dialogue 2020, Senin, 7 Desember. Ikuti rangkaian kegiatan IETD 2020 yang akan berlangsung dari Senin - Jumat, 7 - 11 Desember 2020,

Di hari kedua dari rangkaian kegiatan IETD 2020, akan menghadirkan Gubernur dari Jawa tengah, DKI Jakarta, Sumatera Selatan, NTT, dan Bupati Musi Banyuasin dengan penampilan spesial dari Gubernur Chungcheongnam-do, Korea Selatan.

Reducing Carbon Emissions through Renewable Energy Development Requires Collaboration of All Parties

Carbon emissions from Steam Power Plants (PLTU) tended to be low during Covid-19 pandemic due to decreased consumption of electrical energy. However, the target for reducing carbon emissions is not yet on track to meet the Paris Agreement. For carbon emission reduction to be sustainable, the Indonesian government should be able to take advantage of post-Covid-19 recovery by more massively developing the renewable energy potentials.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) in his remarks during the opening of the Indonesia Energy Transition Dialogue 2020 (IETD 2020) highlighted the phenomenon of falling coal prices in the international market and the stronger commitment of coal-importing countries such as China, Korea and Japan to go carbon neutral in 2050.

"Ten years ago, people might not have imagined that solar panel technology would be one of the energies to power electricity. Or, decades ago, people might not believe that coal would become a history since it is no longer economical. However, all of that is happening right now. Solar energy is getting cheaper, and coal is becoming unpopular, ”he said.

Fabby also explained that Indonesia has great renewable energy potential from sunlight, geothermal, biogas and hydropower. Using these potentials, Indonesia must achieve 23% renewable energy use by 2025.

According to the IESR research, Indonesia's chance of achieving its energy mix target is quite positive. The energy mix penetration in Indonesia can reach 40%. IESR's recent study with Finland's Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) and Agora Energiewende said that Indonesia could reach 100% renewable energy demand by 2050 cost-effectively without compromising on the energy security. Achieving this requires collaboration from all stakeholders in government and community policy.

Although not as fast as ASEAN countries like Thailand in promoting renewable energy development, the Indonesian government through the Ministry of Finance has made various fiscal policies that support the renewable energy industry. Some of them are a tax holiday and tax allowance for the renewable energy industry.

In addition, Suahasil Nazara, Deputy Minister of Finance who attended the Indonesia Energy Transition Dialogue (IETD), emphasized the importance of synergy between institutions to determine the direction of Indonesia's renewable energy.

"The government is basically very passionate about renewable energy development. Come, every institution, especially the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources and related institutions, sit together and have a deep discussion, so that we, from the Ministry of Finance, can provide maximum support in terms of encouraging renewable energy investment in Indonesia," Suahasil said.

The government also continues to improve Indonesia's economy through various national economic recovery (PEN) programs, namely a fund allocation of Rp318 trillion rupiahs. Thanks to this program, Indonesia's economy began to improve as seen from the graph of the national income development that rose from -5.32% to 3.49% in the third quarter.

Unfortunately, the economic stimulus has been flowing more towards fossil energy than renewable energy. Therefore, the government provides various sources of funding for the renewable energy industry. One of them is through the issuance of sukuk hijau.

This article was developed from the recent discussion within the 3rd Indonesia Energy Transition Dialogue, Monday, December 7th. Join and participate in the dialogue virtually, 7 - 11 December 2020, visit ietd.info.

The second day of IETD 2020, will bring the discussions among The Governors (local government of Indonesia) and Special guest: Governor of Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea with the topic of Local governments lead the way in energy transition.

IETD is an IESR and ICEF initiative

 

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©2020 by Indonesia Clean Energy Forum (ICEF) in association with IESR

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