Media Advisory

Jakarta, 9 Desember 2020

Indonesia Harus Bersiap Menuju Pemulihan Ekonomi Berkelanjutan melalui Alokasi Stimulus Ekonomi

Pandemi Covid-19 menyebabkan berbagai negara harus melakukan pemulihan ekonomi dengan berbagai stimulus ekonomi. Stimulus ekonomi yang diberikan pemerintah juga perlu dialokasikan untuk energi terbarukan demi pemulihan ekonomi yang berkelanjutan.

Pimpinan Tim Clean Energy Finance and Investment Mobilisation OECD, Cecilla Tam, mengatakan belajar dari krisis ekonomi 2008, negara-negara di dunia masih sangat minim dalam memberi stimulus ekonomi yang terintegrasi dengan pemulihan lingkungan. Menurut Cecilla, kali ini dunia perlu belajar untuk melakukan stimulus ekonomi berkelanjutan agar tak terjadi kepunahan energi setelah krisis berkali-kali.

Ada beberapa indikator kebijakan yang harus diperhatikan pemerintah Indonesia untuk melakukan perbaikan ekonomi berkelanjutan pasca Covid-19. Yaitu penggunaan karbon efektif, stimulus bahan bakar fosil, area-area yang dilindungi, instrumen ekonomi yang relevan untuk biodiversity, riset dan pengembangan, kebijakan pajak yang berpihak pada lingkungan, dan pembimbingan.

“Di banyak negara, carbon pricing atau aspek harga benar benar membantu mempercepat transisi ke energi ternarukan. Namun, hingga kini hanya sedikit negara yang pricingnya efektif. Harusnya dibawah 30 euro, tapi masih banyak yang di atas itu,” kata Cecilia.

Dalam kasus pemerintah Indonesia, Cecilia mengatakan keluar dari subsidi bahan bakar fosil adalah kunci awal mula percepatan transisi energi. Menurut Cecilia, sejauh ini pemerintah Indonesia sudah melakukan perkembangan positif untuk pengurangan subsidi.

Pimpinan Broker Mentari Program, Iwan Adhisaputra mengatakan di satu sisi Indonesia belum sepenuhnya melihat faktor risiko dan halangan yang ada dalam kebijakan energi terbarukan. Hal ini membuat para investor di bidang energi terbarukan melihat ketidakpastian dalam iklim investasi di Indonesia.

“Karena investor melihat ROI seperti apa, bagaimana dinamika perubahan regulasinya. Ini tantangan bagi Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, pemerintah punya peran penting dalam memastikan ketersediaan pendanaan, tapi lembaga yang akan memberi pinjaman pun juga melihat hal itu,” kata Iwan.

Analis Senior CPI Indonesia, Ery Wijaya, memaparkan hasil riset CPI Indonesia. Saat ini pemerintah sudah mulai proses pembangunan pembangkit listrik tenaga sinar matahari di Nusa Tenggara Timur dan pembangunan hidropower di aceh.

Pemerintah juga sudah memiliki anggaran sebesar Rp46 Miliar dalam Program Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. “Kemudian pemerintah punya 2 Miliar untuk suntikan modal distribusi listrik di kalimantan. Ini berasal dari stimulus fiskal dalam Program Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (PEN) yang ditujukan untuk transisi energi dari APBN biodiesel sebesar 2 persen,” kata Ery.

Untuk mendapatkan dana investasi tambahan di bidang energi terbarukan, pemerintah perlu lebih dulu memasukkan mitigasi resiko, dan penjelasan akses modal dalam laporan keuangan. Selain itu, cashflow PEN juga harus dipertimbangan.

Indonesia Must Prepare for Sustainable Economic Recovery through Economic Stimulus

Covid-19 pandemic has driven a lot of countries to revive their economy through various economic stimuli. For sustainable economic recovery, the economic stimulus also needs to be passed for renewable energy.

Leader of the OECD Clean Energy Finance and Investment Mobilization, Cecilla Tam, said that learning from the 2008 economic crisis, a lot of countries had not passed sufficient economic stimulus integrated with environmental recovery. According to Cecilla, this time the world needs to learn to pass sustainable economic stimulus so that energy does not go extinct after repeated crises.

There are several policy indicators to which the Indonesian government must pay attention for sustainable economic improvements after Covid-19: effective use of carbon, fossil fuel stimulus, protected areas, economic instruments relevant for biodiversity, research and development, pro-environment tax policies, and guidance.

“In many countries, carbon pricing or the pricing aspect does helps accelerate the transition to renewable energy. However, until now only few countries have had effective pricing. It should be under 30 euros, but many are still above it," said Cecilia.

In the case of the Indonesian government, Cecilia said revoking fossil fuel subsidies was the key to accelerating the energy transition. According to her, so far the Indonesian government had made positive progress in reducing subsidies.

Head of the Mentari Program Broker, Iwan Adhisaputra, said that on the one hand, Indonesia had not fully seen the risk factors and obstacles that existed in renewable energy policies. This had allowed investors in the renewable energy sector to see the uncertainty in Indonesia’s investment climate.

"Since investors had seen what the ROI is like, the dynamics of the regulatory change. This is a challenge for Indonesia. Therefore, the government plays an important role in ensuring the funding availability, but the loan institutions must also see to this," said Iwan.

CPI Indonesia’s Senior Analyst, Ery Wijaya, explained the results of their research. In the meantime, the government has started building a solar power plant in East Nusa Tenggara and hydropower in Aceh.

The government also has had a budget of Rp 46 billion for the National Economic Recovery Program. "The government has 2 billion for capital injection into electricity distribution in Kalimantan. This comes from the fiscal stimulus in the National Economic Recovery Program (PEN) aimed at energy transition from the 2% biodiesel APBN," said Ery.

To obtain additional investment funds, the government first needs to include risk mitigation and capital access in its financial reports. Besides, PEN cash flow must also be considered.

IETD is an IESR and ICEF initiative

 

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